Adsorptive Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Biogenic Iron Permeated Activated Carbon Derived from Sweet Lime Waste

Acta Chim Slov. 2019 Feb;66(1):123-136.


In this study, biogenic activated carbon were successfully synthesized from Citrus limetta pulp residue, and applied to remove fluoride from an aqueous solution. For the synthesis activated carbon of biosorbents, raw materials were heated in muffle furnace at two different temperatures i.e. (250 °C and 500 °C) and were noted as ACP-250 and ACP-500. The prepared biosorbents were characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Batch adsorption studies were performed with varying temperature, dosage, pH, and various initial concentrations. Adsorption isotherms and the reaction kinetics were also analyzed in order to understand the adsorption mechanism. The results of this study shows that the maximum removal achieved was approximately (86 and 82) % of ACP-500 and ACP-250, respectively. The isotherm results show that the Langmuir isotherm model fitted better, with monolayer adsorption capacity of 12.6 mg/g of fluoride. However, for kinetic study, the pseudo-second-order kinetics fitted well. The synthesized materials at different temperature were highly effective for the removal of fluoride from water, with reusability of three to four times.