Hybrid Polyoxometalate Salt Adhesion by Butyltin Functionalization

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2021 Apr 28;13(16):19497-19506. doi: 10.1021/acsami.1c03269. Epub 2021 Apr 15.


Polyoxometalate (POM)-based ionic liquids, with nearly infinite compositional variations to fine-tune antimicrobial and physical properties, function as water purification filters, anticorrosion/antibacterial coatings for natural stones, self-repairing acid-resistant coatings, catalysts, and electroactive, stable solvents. By combining hydrophobic quaternary ammonium cations (QACs; tetraheptylammonium and trihexyltetradecylammonium) with butyltin-substituted polyoxotungstates [(BuSn)3(α-SiW9O37)] via repeated solvent extraction-ion exchange, we obtained phase-pure hybrid POM salts (referred to as such because they melt above room temperature). If the solvent extraction process is performed only once, then solids with high salt contamination and considerably lower melting temperatures are obtained. Solution-phase behavior, based on POM-QAC interactions, was similar for all formulations in polar and nonpolar organic solvents, as observed by X-ray scattering and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, solid thin films of the butyltin-functionalized hybrid POM salts were significantly more stable and adhesive than their inorganic analogues. We attribute this to the favorable hydrophobic interactions between the butyltin groups and the QACs. All synthesized hybrid POM salts display a potent antimicrobial activity toward Escherichia coli. These studies provide fundamental form-function understanding of hybrid POM salts, based on interactions between ions in these complex hybrid phases.

Keywords: antimicrobial; biocidal; ionic liquids; organotin; polyoxometalate; quaternary ammonium.