Hyperbaric oxygen therapy effectively alleviates D-galactose-induced-age-related cardiac dysfunction via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction in pre-diabetic rats

Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Apr 16;13(8):10955-10972. doi: 10.18632/aging.202970. Epub 2021 Apr 16.


Currently, the prevalence of obesity in aging populations is fast growing worldwide. Aging induced by D-galactose (D-gal) is proven to cause the worsening of cardiac dysfunction in pre-diabetic rats via deteriorating cardiac mitochondrial function. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to attenuate D-gal-induced cognitive deterioration through decreased inflammation and apoptosis. We tested the hypothesis that HBOT alleviates D-gal induced cardiac dysfunction via improving mitochondrial function in pre-diabetic rats. Wistar rats (n=56) were fed normal diet or high-fat diet for 12 weeks. For subsequent 8 weeks, they were subcutaneously injected either vehicle (0.9% normal saline) or D-gal (150mg/kg/day). Rats were randomly subdivided into 7 groups at week 21: sham-treated (normal diet fed rats with vehicle (NDV), high-fat diet fed rats with vehicle (HFV), normal diet fed rats with D-gal (NDDg), high-fat diet fed rats with D-gal (HFDg)) and HBOT-treated (HFV, NDDg, HFDg). Sham rats received ambient pressure of oxygen while HBOT-treated ones received 100% oxygen given once daily for 60 minutes at 2 atmosphere absolute. HBOT reduced metabolic impairments, mitochondrial dysfunction and increased autophagy, resulting in an improvement of cardiac function in aged pre-diabetic rats.

Keywords: D-galactose; aging; heart; hyperbaric oxygen therapy; mirochondria.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aging / drug effects
  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / pathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy*
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Galactose / administration & dosage
  • Galactose / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Hyperbaric Oxygenation*
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Male
  • Mitochondria, Heart / pathology
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Obesity / therapy
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Oxygen / administration & dosage
  • Prediabetic State / complications
  • Prediabetic State / therapy*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Oxygen
  • Galactose