Enhanced passive surveillance dengue infection among febrile children: Prevalence, co-infections and associated factors in Cameroon

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 16;15(4):e0009316. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009316. eCollection 2021 Apr.

Abstract

Dengue virus (DENV) causes a spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic, mild febrile to a life-threatening illness: dengue hemorrhagic fever. The main clinical symptom of dengue is fever, similar to that of malaria. The prevalence of dengue virus infection, alone or in association with other endemic infectious diseases in children in Cameroon is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dengue, malaria and HIV in children presenting with fever and associated risk factors. Dengue overall prevalence was 20.2%, Malaria cases were 52.7% and HIV cases represented 12.6%. The prevalence of dengue-HIV co-infection was 6.0% and that of Malaria-dengue co-infection was 19.5%. Triple infection prevalence was 4.3%. Dengue virus infection is present in children and HIV-Dengue or Dengue- Malaria co-infections are common. Dengue peak prevalence was between August and October. Sex and age were not associated with dengue and dengue co-infections. However, malaria as well as HIV were significantly associated with dengue (P = 0.001 and 0.028 respectively). The diagnosis of dengue and Malaria should be carried out routinely for better management of fever.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cameroon / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coinfection / epidemiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dengue / diagnosis
  • Dengue / epidemiology*
  • Dengue Virus / isolation & purification*
  • Female
  • Fever / epidemiology*
  • Fever / virology
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Malaria / diagnosis
  • Malaria / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors

Grant support

The authors received no specific funding for this work.