Steady-state kinetic analysis of halogenase-supporting flavin reductases BorF and AbeF reveals different kinetic mechanisms

Arch Biochem Biophys. 2021 Jun 15:704:108874. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2021 Apr 20.


The short-chain flavin reductases BorF and AbeF reduce FAD to FADH2, which is then used by flavin-dependent halogenases (BorH and AbeH respectively) to regioselectively chlorinate tryptophan in the biosynthesis of indolotryptoline natural products. Recombinant AbeF and BorF were overexpressed and purified as homodimers from E. coli, and copurified with substoichiometric amounts of FAD, which could be easily removed. AbeF and BorF can reduce FAD, FMN, and riboflavin in vitro and are selective for NADH over NADPH. Initial velocity studies in the presence and absence of inhibitors showed that BorF proceeds by a sequential ordered kinetic mechanism in which FAD binds first, while AbeF follows a random-ordered sequence of substrate binding. Fluorescence quenching experiments verified that NADH does not bind BorF in the absence of FAD, and that both AbeF and BorF bind FAD with higher affinity than FADH2. pH-rate profiles of BorF and AbeF were bell-shaped with maximum kcat at pH 7.5, and site-directed mutagenesis of BorF implicated His160 and Arg38 as contributing to the catalytic activity and the pH dependence.

Keywords: FAD; NADH; Oxidoreductase; Steady-state kinetics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Escherichia coli / enzymology*
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / chemistry*
  • FMN Reductase / chemistry*
  • Flavin Mononucleotide / chemistry*
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide / chemistry*
  • Kinetics
  • Riboflavin / chemistry*


  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide
  • Flavin Mononucleotide
  • FMN Reductase
  • Fre protein, E coli
  • Riboflavin