Release of redox enzymes and micro-RNAs in extracellular vesicles, during infection and inflammation

Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Apr 13;169:248-257. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.04.010. Online ahead of print.


Many studies reported that redox enzymes, particularly thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin, can be released by cells and act as soluble mediators in immunity. Recently, it became clear that peroxiredoxins can be secreted via the exosome-release route, yet it remains unclear how this exactly happens and why. This review will first introduce briefly the possible redox states of protein cysteines and the role of redox enzymes in their regulation. We will then discuss the studies on the extracellular forms of some of these enzymes, their association with exosomes/extracellular vesicles and with exosome micro-RNAs (miRNAs)/mRNAs involved in oxidative processes, relevant in infection and inflammation.

Keywords: Exosomes; Immunity; Inflammation; Peroxiredoxin; Sepsis; Thioredoxin; microRNA.

Publication types

  • Review