Modified RANO, Immunotherapy RANO, and Standard RANO Response to Convection-Enhanced Delivery of IL4R-Targeted Immunotoxin MDNA55 in Recurrent Glioblastoma

Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Jul 15;27(14):3916-3925. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0446. Epub 2021 Apr 16.


Purpose: The current study compared the standard response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO), immunotherapy RANO (iRANO), and modified RANO (mRANO) criteria as well as quantified the association between progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in an immunotherapy trial in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM).

Patients and methods: A total of 47 patients with rGBM were enrolled in a prospective phase II convection-enhanced delivery of an IL4R-targeted immunotoxin (MDNA55-05, NCT02858895). Bidirectional tumor measurements were created by local sites and centrally by an independent radiologic faculty, then standard RANO, iRANO, and mRANO criteria were applied.

Results: A total of 41 of 47 patients (mean age 56 ± 11.7) were evaluable for response. PFS was significantly shorter using standard RANO compared with iRANO (log-rank, P < 0.0001; HR = 0.3) and mRANO (P < 0.0001; HR = 0.3). In patients who died and had confirmed progression on standard RANO, no correlation was observed between PFS and OS (local, P = 0.47; central, P = 0.34). Using iRANO, a weak association was observed between confirmed PFS and OS via local site measurements (P = 0.017), but not central measurements (P = 0.18). A total of 24 of 41 patients (59%) were censored using iRANO and because they lacked confirmation of progression 3 months after initial progression. A strong correlation was observed between mRANO PFS and OS for both local (R2 = 0.66, P < 0.0001) and centrally determined reads (R2 = 0.57, P = 0.0007).

Conclusions: No correlation between radiographic PFS and OS was observed for standard RANO or iRANO, but a correlation was observed between PFS and OS using the mRANO criteria. Also, the iRANO criteria was difficult to implement due to need to confirm progression 3 months after initial progression, censoring more than half the patients.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Glioblastoma / mortality
  • Glioblastoma / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Immunotoxins / pharmacology*
  • Interleukin-4 Receptor alpha Subunit / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy*
  • Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome


  • IL4R protein, human
  • Immunotoxins
  • Interleukin-4 Receptor alpha Subunit

Associated data