Background: Ovarian sex cord stromal tumours (OSCSTs) are rare ovarian tumours and include different histopathologic subtypes. This study aimed to analyse the clinical and sonographic characteristics of different histopathologic OSCST subtypes.
Methods: A total of 63 patients with surgically proven OSCSTs were enrolled in this retrospective study to analyse their clinical and sonographic features. Ultrasound examinations and predictive models were performed before surgery. The clinical and sonographic findings were compared according to the type of OSCST based on the histopathological diagnosis.
Results: The mean age of 63 patients was 52.17 years (range: 17-78 years). Eighteen patients experienced irregular vaginal bleeding (28.57% 18/63), 7 patients exhibited abnormal body hair (11.11%). 2 patients (3.17%) showed an increased level of CA125, and 25 patients (39.68%, 25/63) showed an increased level of testosterone. Forty-two patients had ovarian thecoma-fibroma groups (OTFGs). Six patients had Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (S-LCTs), 4 patients had Leydig cell tumours (LCTs), 8 patients had ovarian granulosa cell tumours (OGCTs), 2 patients had ovarian steroid cell tumours, not otherwise specified (OSCTs-NOS), and one patient had sclerosing stromal tumours (SSTs). The mean diameter of the tumour was 47.9 mm (range: 10-258 mm). Forty-seven masses were hypoechoic (74.60%). Twenty-eight masses had posterior echo attenuation, 22 masses exhibited abundant Doppler flow signals (34.92%), and one patient had ascites (1.59%). The diagnostic accuracy of the Simple Rules (SR) and the Assessment of Different NEoplasias in the adneXa (ADNEX) model in distinguishing benign and malignant OSCSTs was 44% (30/63) and 84% (53/63), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the SR for OTFGs, S-LCTs & LCTs & OSCTs-NOS, OGCTs, and SSTs was 47.6% (20/42), 16.67% (2/12), 100% (8/8), and 0% (0/1), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the ADNEX model for OTFGs, S-LCTs & LCTs & OSCTs-NOS, OGCTs, and SSTs was 93% (31/42), 58.33% (7/12), 75% (6/8), and 100% (1/1), respectively.
Conclusions: OSCSTs generally appear as a solid mass on ultrasound. Posterior echo attenuation indicates an OTFG. A solid mass with abundant Doppler flow signals indicates an S-LCT, LCT, OSCT-NOS or OGCT. Current predictive models are not very effective, but symptoms, sonographic features and serum hormones are helpful for diagnosis.
Keywords: ADNEX model; Ovarian thecoma-fibroma groups; Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours; Simple rules; Ultrasound.