A novel automated immunoassay for serum NY-ESO-1 and XAGE1 antibodies in combinatory prediction of response to anti-programmed cell death-1 therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer

Clin Chim Acta. 2021 Aug:519:51-59. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2021.04.008. Epub 2021 Apr 15.


Background: Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies (Abs) are key drugs in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment; however, clinical benefits with anti-PD-1 monotherapy are limited. We reported that serum Abs against cancer-testis antigens NY-ESO-1 and XAGE1 predicted clinical benefits. We aimed to develop a fully automated immunoassay system measuring NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Abs.

Methods: Sera from 30 NSCLC patients before anti-PD-1 monotherapy were reacted with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein- or synthetic XAGE1 peptide-coated magnetic beads. ALP-conjugated Ab and chemiluminescent substrate were added and luminescence measured. These procedures were automated using high sensitivity chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (HISCL™). NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Ab stability was tested under various conditions. Response prediction accuracy was evaluated using area under receiver operating curve (AUROC).

Results: HISCL detected specific serum NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Abs, which levels in ELISA and HISCL were highly correlated. The Ab levels in HISCL were stable at four temperatures, five freeze/thaw cycles, and long-term storage; the levels were not interfered by common blood components. The Ab levels in 15 NSCLC responders to anti-PD-1 monotherapy were significantly higher than those in non-responders and healthy donors. The AUROC was the highest (0.91; 95% CI, 0.78-1.0) in combinatory prediction with NY-ESO-1/XAGE1 Abs.

Conclusion: Our immunoassay system is useful to predict clinical benefits with NSCLC immune-checkpoint therapy.

Keywords: Autoantibody; Automated immunoassay; Biomarker; Cancer-testis antigen; Immune-checkpoint therapy; Lung cancer.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay
  • Lung Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Membrane Proteins