Kohlschütter-Tönz Syndrome With a Novel ROGD1 Variant in 3 Individuals: A Rare Clinical Entity

J Child Neurol. 2021 Sep;36(10):816-822. doi: 10.1177/08830738211004736. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Abstract

Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome (OMIM 226750) is a rare disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance among epileptic encephalopathy syndromes. To date, only 31 Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome families have been reported in the literature. Early-onset epilepsy, progressive global developmental delay, and amelogenesis imperfecta are the main components of the syndrome. Mutations in ROGDI (MIM 226750) and SLC13A5 (MIM 615905) are responsible for Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome. Here, we report on the clinical and molecular characteristics of 3 individuals from 2 families, all harboring the same homozygous novel deleterious variant in ROGD1, along with a long-term follow-up and review of the literature. Although the phenotypic features are almost consistent in Kohlschütter-Tönz syndrome, overlooking dental findings and diverse degrees of variability in clinical findings makes diagnosis challenging occasionally. Because there is a limited number of reported patients, identification of new patients and delineation of clinical and molecular findings will increase the awareness of clinicians and enable establishing genotype-phenotype correlations.

Keywords: Amelogenesis Imperfecta; Epilepsy; Kohlschütter-Tönz Syndrome; ROGD1.