Association of Oxidative Stress with Disease Activity and Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross Sectional Study from a Tertiary Care Centre in Southern India

Indian J Clin Biochem. 2021 Apr;36(2):185-193. doi: 10.1007/s12291-020-00879-5. Epub 2020 Mar 24.


To study oxidative stress in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by estimating serum oxidised LDL (OxLDL), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total anti-oxidant status and to correlate with SLE disease activity and disease damage. Eighty SLE patients satisfying the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) 2012 criteria and 80 healthy controls were studied. Exclusion criteria were infections, renal insufficiency, other connective tissue diseases, drug-induced lupus, smoking, alcohol consumption. Disease activity was measured by SLE disease activity index-2 K (SLEDAI), disease damage was quantified by SLICC-Damage Index (SDI). Sera was tested for OxLDL, 8-OHdG, and total antioxidant status (TAS) by double-antibody sandwich ELISA; MDA measured by Colorimetric assay. Oxidative stress markers were compared between group1- controls, group 2-mildly active SLE (SLEDAI ≤ 5), group 3- moderate to highly active SLE (SLEDAI ≥ 6). SLE patients had significantly higher MDA, 8-OHdG and lower TAS when compared to healthy controls, while OxLDL was similar in the three groups. MDA, 8-OHdG were significantly higher, TAS lower in group 3 compared to group 2. MDA had positive correlation with SLEDAI, TAS negatively correlated with SLEDAI. SLE with neuropsychiatric manifestations, vasculitis, anti-sdDNA antibodies had higher MDA, MDA/TAS ratio. SLE patients with thrombocytopenia, and vasculitis had higher OxLDL. Only OxLDL was significantly higher in those patients who have SDI > 1. SLE patients have increased oxidative stress measured by increases in MDA, 8-OHdG, and lower total antioxidant status that was associated with disease activity and some disease manifestations. However only OxLDL was associated with damage.

Keywords: LDL; Malondialdehyde; Nephritis; Neuropsychiatric lupus; Oxidative stress; Oxidized.