Paraneoplastic ganglioradiculoneuritis in a cat with a plasma cell tumour

JFMS Open Rep. 2021 Mar 31;7(1):20551169211003806. doi: 10.1177/20551169211003806. eCollection 2021 Jan-Jun.

Abstract

Case summary: An 8-year-old neutered female domestic longhair cat was presented for investigation of a 48 h history of lethargy and pelvic limb ataxia. MRI of the spinal cord and vertebral column (C1 to sacrum) and brain was unremarkable. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and increased protein concentration. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were unremarkable. Anti-inflammatory doses of prednisolone were administered. Clinical deterioration occurred over the following 2 days, with the development of lower motor neuron deficits in both thoracic limbs. On repetition of the MRI, bilateral enlargement, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and marked contrast enhancement of the C7, C8 and T1 nerve roots, spinal nerves and brachial plexuses were observed. Infectious disease testing was negative. An immune-mediated inflammatory process was suspected and immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone were commenced. The clinical signs improved transiently, but marked deterioration occurred after 2 weeks. The patient was euthanased and a post-mortem examination was performed. A lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was detected in the C7, C8 and T1 nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia, and neoplastic plasma cells were identified in multiple organs. A diagnosis of non-cutaneous extramedullary plasmacytoma with multiorgan involvement and paraneoplastic ganglioradiculoneuritis was reached.

Relevance and novel information: Paraneoplastic ganglioradiculoneuritis in association with a plasma cell neoplasia has not been previously reported in the cat and should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cats with clinical or imaging evidence of an inflammatory process affecting the nerve roots, spinal nerves or brachial plexuses.

Keywords: Neuritis; paraneoplastic; plasma cell tumour; plasmacytoma; radiculoneuritis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports