A rare cause of hydronephrosis: Leiomyoma of the ureter and a literature review

Urologia. 2023 Feb;90(1):189-191. doi: 10.1177/03915603211010463. Epub 2021 Apr 19.


Introduction: Leiomyomas of the genitourinary tract are rare and their manifestation in the ureter is even rarer. To our knowledge, only 14 cases of leiomyoma of the ureter have been reported worldwide since 1955, therefore this case will be 15th.

Case presentation: We present a rare case of primary leiomyoma of the right ureter. Ureteroscopy did not show any abnormal findings in the ureteral mucosa. The primary leiomyoma was resected with distal ureterectomy and partial cystectomy that was followed with ureteroneocystostomy due to extraluminal mass that caused hydronephrosis and back pain.

Conclusion: Although rare, we believe that leiomyoma should be considered in the differential diagnoses of well-circumscribed ureteral masses and kidney-sparing surgery should be performed.

Keywords: Leiomyoma of ureter; hydronephrosis; leiomyoma; ureter mass; ureterectomy.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hydronephrosis* / etiology
  • Hydronephrosis* / surgery
  • Leiomyoma* / complications
  • Leiomyoma* / surgery
  • Ureter* / surgery
  • Ureteral Neoplasms* / complications
  • Ureteral Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Ureteral Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Ureteroscopy