Background: Asthma has become one of the major public health challenges, and recent studies show promising clinical benefits of dietary interventions, such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in diet quality are associated with changes in inflammatory markers important in asthma pathophysiology.
Methods: In this exploratory study in patients with poorly controlled asthma participating in a randomized controlled trial of a DASH intervention study, changes in concentrations of a broad panel of serum proteins (51-plex Luminex assay, Affymetrix) were determined, and their relation to diet quality (DASH score) assessed by combining data of both intervention and usual-care control groups. Second, the relation between the serum proteins, other biomarkers of inflammation and nutrition, and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was assessed.
Results: During the first 3 mo, diet quality (DASH scores) were inversely associated (P < 0.05, false discovery rate P < 0.09) with serum concentrations of a large number serum proteins, reflecting not only general proinflammatory markers such as IL-1β, transforming growth factor α (TGF-α), and IL-6 (r = -0.31 to -0.39) but also a number of proteins associated with asthmatic conditions, specifically several T-helper (Th) 2 (Th2; r = -0.29 to -0.34) and Th17 (r = -0.4) associated cytokines and growth factors. Monokine induced by gamma/chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) (MIG/CXCL9), a T-cell attractant induced by IFN-γ previously linked to asthma exacerbations, appeared to be the marker most consistently associated with DASH diet quality for the entire 6-mo study period (r = -0.40 and -0.30 for 0-3 and 3-6 mo, respectively, and standardized coefficient loadings -0.13 in the partial least squares analyses). Decreases in 19 serum protein concentrations were also correlated with improved asthma control during the 6-mo study period.
Conclusions: Our data in adult patients with poorly controlled asthma suggest that dietary changes, like the introduction of DASH, may have beneficial effects on reducing inflammatory status. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01725945.
Keywords: DASH diet; asthma; blood proteins; cytokines; inflammatory markers.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.