Three Decades of Follow-up After Surgical Closure of Subarterial Ventricular Septal Defect

Pediatr Cardiol. 2021 Jun;42(5):1216-1223. doi: 10.1007/s00246-021-02603-3. Epub 2021 Apr 19.


We determined the occurrence of aortic regurgitation (AR), AR progression and risk factors in patients followed up for up to three decades after closure of subarterial VSD. We reviewed the outcomes of 86 patients categorized into three groups: group I comprised 37 patients without AR and had VSD closure alone, group II comprised 40 patients with AR and had VSD closure without aortic valvoplasty, and group III comprised 9 patients with AR and required both VSD closure and aortic valvoplasty. Patients were followed up for 18.9 ± 7.3 years (median 19.5 years, range 3.5-36.6). At latest follow up, 54.7% (47/86) of patients had AR. The prevalence of progression of AR from any one grade to the next one higher was 37.2% (32/86). Freedom from AR progression was 75.6%, 52.1%, and 22.2% at 20 years of follow-up for groups I, II and III, respectively (p < 0.05). On the other hand, progression to moderate to severe AR occurred only in 4.7% (4/86). Group I and II patients were free from progression to significant AR, while only 33.3% of group III patients were free from progression on follow-up (p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that severity of preoperative AR was the significant risk factor for persistence and progression of postoperative AR after VSD closure. In conclusion, aortic regurgitation is common and may progress even after surgical repair of subarterial VSD. Severity of preoperative AR is the most significant predictor of persistence and progression of AR after surgical closure of subarterial VSD.

Keywords: Aortic regurgitation; Clinical outcome; Congenital heart surgery; Subarterial ventricular septal defect.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency / epidemiology*
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency / etiology
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postoperative Period
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors