Touch-Based Fingertip Blood-Free Reliable Glucose Monitoring: Personalized Data Processing for Predicting Blood Glucose Concentrations

ACS Sens. 2021 May 28;6(5):1875-1883. doi: 10.1021/acssensors.1c00139. Epub 2021 Apr 19.


Diabetes prevalence has been rising exponentially, increasing the need for reliable noninvasive approaches for glucose monitoring. Different biofluids have been explored recently for replacing current blood finger-stick glucose strips with noninvasive painless sensing devices. While sweat has received considerable attention, there are mixed reports on correlating the sweat results with blood glucose levels. Here, we demonstrate a new rapid and reliable approach that combines a simple touch-based fingertip sweat electrochemical sensor with a new algorithm that addresses for personal variations toward the accurate estimate of blood glucose concentrations. The new painless and simple glucose self-testing protocol leverages the fast sweat rate on the fingertip for rapid assays of natural perspiration, without any sweat stimulation, along with the personalized sweat-response-to-blood concentration translation. A reliable estimate of the blood glucose sensing concentrations can thus be realized through a simple one-time personal precalibration. Such system training leads to a substantially improved accuracy with a Pearson correlation coefficient higher than 0.95, along with an overall mean absolute relative difference of 7.79%, with 100% paired points residing in the A + B region of the Clarke error grid. The speed and simplicity of the touch-based blood-free fingertip sweat assay, and the elimination of periodic blood calibrations, should lead to frequent self-testing of glucose and enhanced patient compliance toward the improved management of diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes; fingertip touch sensor; noninvasive glucose analysis; personalized calibration; sweat glucose.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring*
  • Blood Glucose*
  • Glucose
  • Humans
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Touch


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glucose