Ovarian cancer has been the most lethal gynaecological malignancy worldwide. Additionally, triptolide is an active substance that has been extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine T. wilfordii Hook F. , which possesses anti-tumor, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In recent years, TP has attracted increasing attention because of its broad-spectrum efficient anti-tumor activity. Nevertheless, its clinical utility is limited due to its severe side effects. In this study, we constructed an exosome-encapsulated TP targeted drug delivery systems, studying its anti-tumor effects and mechanisms in vivo and in vitro . We observed that compared with free TP, TP-Exos significantly enhanced anti-ovarian cancer effects and reduce toxicity to important organs. We further demonstrated that TP-Exos induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, regulated tumor immunity by activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and selectively inhibited M2 tumor-associated macrophages and their tumor-promoting mediators in the tumor microenvironment. In summary, TP-Exos are a promising treatment for ovarian cancer.