EHRA expert consensus statement and practical guide on optimal implantation technique for conventional pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and the Latin-American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS)

Europace. 2021 Jul 18;23(7):983-1008. doi: 10.1093/europace/euaa367.


With the global increase in device implantations, there is a growing need to train physicians to implant pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Although there are international recommendations for device indications and programming, there is no consensus to date regarding implantation technique. This document is founded on a systematic literature search and review, and on consensus from an international task force. It aims to fill the gap by setting standards for device implantation.

Keywords: Consensus document; Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; Implantation; Pacemaker; Recommendations.

MeSH terms

  • Asia
  • Consensus
  • Defibrillators, Implantable*
  • Humans
  • Pacemaker, Artificial*
  • United States