BACKGROUND A lack of physical exercise, a critical aspect of a healthy lifestyle, contributes to several cerebral diseases, such as cognitive impairment, Parkinson disease (PD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of physical exercise on cerebral disease via released extracellular vesicles (EVs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Short-term high-intensity treadmill exercise was applied to assess the effect of physical activity on EVs in the serum and brain tissue. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis were used to analyze biomarkers of EVs, including TSG101, HSC70, and CD63. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was used to analyze the size and concentration of EVs. RESULTS Short-term high-intensity exercise increased the number of neuronal EVs in the brain. In the peripheral blood serum, the level of HSC70 showed a temporary increase after exercise and quickly returned to the normal level, whereas the levels of CD63 and TSG101 showed no obvious change in response to physical exercise. In brain tissue, the levels of HSC70 and TSG101 increased dramatically after exercise, while the level of CD63 remained unchanged. The concentration of EVs was significantly increased after exercise, while the mean diameter of the EVs showed no significant change. The levels of ceramide were significantly increased after exercise, and quickly returned to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that the secretion of EVs in the brain and blood is a transitory response to physical exercise and is dependent on ceramide synthesis.