Rationale and objectives: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been utilized as a means of producing high-quality simulation models for trainees in procedure-intensive or surgical subspecialties. However, less is known about its role for trainee education within interventional radiology (IR). Thus, the purpose of this review was to assess the state of current literature regarding the use of 3D printed simulation models in IR procedural simulation experiences.
Materials and methods: A literature query was conducted through April 2020 for articles discussing three-dimensional printing for simulations in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library databases using key terms relating to 3D printing, radiology, simulation, training, and interventional radiology.
Results: We identified a scarcity of published sources, 4 total articles, that appraised the use of three-dimensional printing for simulation training in IR. While trainee feedback is generally supportive of the use of three-dimensional printing within the field, current applications utilizing 3D printed models are heterogeneous, reflecting a lack of best practices standards in the realm of medical education.
Conclusions: Presently available literature endorses the use of three-dimensional printing within interventional radiology as a teaching tool. Literature documenting the benefits of 3D printed models for IR simulation has the potential to expand within the field, as it offers a straightforward, sustainable, and reproducible means for hands-on training that ought to be standardized.
Keywords: High fidelity training; Interventional radiology; Simulation training; Three-dimensional printing.