Visceral Obesity and High Systolic Blood Pressure as the Substrate of Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Adolescents

Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021 Apr;116(4):795-803. doi: 10.36660/abc.20190541.
[Article in English, Portuguese]

Abstract

Background: Obesity affects adolescence and may lead to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Albeit obesity is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), it is not clear the role of OSA in endothelial function in adolescents with obesity.

Objective: To investigate whether obesity during adolescence leads to MetS and/or OSA; and causes endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we studied the possible association of MetS risk factors and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) with endothelial dysfunction.

Methods: We studied 20 sedentary obese adolescents (OA; 14.2±1.6 years, 100.9±20.3kg), and 10 normal-weight adolescents (NWA, 15.2±1.2 years, 54.4±5.3kg) paired for sex. We assessed MetS risk factors (International Diabetes Federation criteria), vascular function (Flow-Mediated Dilation, FMD), functional capacity (VO2peak) and the presence of OSA (AHI>1event/h, by polysomnography). We considered statistically significant a P<0.05.

Results: OA presented higher waist (WC), body fat, triglycerides, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), LDL-c and lower HDL-c and VO2peak than NWA. MetS was presented in the 35% of OA, whereas OSA was present in 86.6% of OA and 50% of EA. There was no difference between groups in the AHI. The OA had lower FMD than NWA (6.17±2.72 vs. 9.37±2.20%, p=0.005). There was an association between FMD and WC (R=-0.506, p=0.008) and FMD and SBP (R=-0.493, p=0.006).

Conclusion: In adolescents, obesity was associates with MetS and caused endothelial dysfunction. Increased WC and SBP could be involved in this alteration. OSA was observed in most adolescents, regardless of obesity. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(4):795-803).

Fundamento: A obesidade afeta a adolescência, podendo levar à síndrome metabólica (SM) e disfunção endotelial, um marcador precoce de risco cardiovascular. Apesar de a obesidade ser fortemente associada à síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS), ainda não está claro o papel da SAOS na função endotelial em adolescentes obesos.

Objetivo: Investigar se a obesidade durante a adolescência leva à SM e/ou SAOS e causa disfunção endotelial nesses indivíduos. Além disso, estudamos a possível associação dos fatores de risco para SM e do índice de apneia e hipopneia (IAH) com disfunção endotelial.

Métodos: Estudamos 20 adolescentes obesos sedentários (AO; 14,2±1,6 anos, 100,9±20,3kg), e 10 adolescentes eutróficos (AE, 15,2±1,2 anos, 54,4±5,3kg) pareados por sexo. Avaliamos os fatores de risco para SM (critérios da Federação Internacional de Diabetes), função vascular (dilatação mediada pelo fluxo, DMF), capacidade funcional (VO2pico) e presença de SAOS (IAH > 1 evento/hora, pela polissonografia). Consideramos um p<0,05 como estatisticamente significativo.

Resultados: AO apresentaram maior circunferência da cintura (CC), gordura corporal, triglicerídeos, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD), maiores níveis de LDL e menores HDL e VO2pico em comparação a AE. Não houve diferença no IAH entre os grupos. AO apresentaram menor DMF que AE (6,17±2,72 vs. 9,37±2,20%, p=0,005). Observou-se uma associação entre DMF e CC (R=-0,506, p=0,008) e entre DMF e PAS (R=-0,493, p=0,006).

Conclusão: Em adolescentes, a obesidade associou-se à SM e causou disfunção endotelial. CC e PAS aumentadas poderiam estar envolvidas nessa alteração. SAOS foi detectada na maioria dos adolescentes independentemente de obesidade. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(4):795-803).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / complications
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity, Abdominal* / complications
  • Polysomnography
  • Risk Factors