Prevalence of Chlamydia in Pigs in China from 1985 to 2020: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2021 Jul;21(7):517-533. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2020.2694. Epub 2021 Apr 21.


Chlamydia is a small gram-negative (G-) microorganism that can be dangerous to human and animals. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of Chlamydia infection in swine in China. From PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of knowledge (CNKI), VIP Chinese journal database, and Wanfang database, we collected a total of 72 publications reported in 1985-2020. The prevalence of Chlamydia was 22.48% in China. In the sampling year subgroup, the prevalence after 2011 was the highest (26.14%). In southern China, the prevalence was 30.97%. By contrast, the prevalence in northern China was only 10.79%. Also the difference was significant (p < 0.05). In the provincial level, Hubei had the highest rate of 36.23%. Boars had a higher prevalence (29.47%). The prevalence of Chlamydia detection in pigs with reproductive disorders (21.86%) was higher than that without reproductive disorders. Among the three age groups, finishing pigs (21.43%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence in large-scale farmed pigs (28.58%) was the highest in the subgroup of feeding methods. The prevalence in farms was 24.29%, which was the highest in the survey areas. The prevalence in spring was the highest with 40.51%. Other methods had the highest prevalence (39.61%) than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect hemagglutination assay. The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci 18.41% was lower than the prevalence of Chlamydia abortus (41.35%). We also analyzed the impact of different climate factor subgroups (rainfall, temperature, and humidity) on the probability of pigs suffering from the disease. The results showed that Chlamydia was widespread in pigs in China. We suggest that we should strengthen the detection of Chlamydia in the semen of breeding pigs and pigs with reproductive disorders, and reasonably control the environment of large-scale pig farms, so as to reduce further infection of Chlamydia in pigs.

Keywords: China; Porcine Chlamydia; meta-analysis; pigs; prevalence.