Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a global threat and accounts for approximately 90% of malignant oral lesions. The emergence of oral carcinoma is linked to precancerous lesions, which act as precursors of the disease. Matrix metalloproteinases appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of both precancerous conditions and oral malignancies due to their participation in remodeling of the extracellular matrix.
Methodology: This is an analytical study conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Pakistan. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from healthy, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The level of MMP-12 was estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One-way Analysis of variance was run to determine if MMP-12 levels differ between the three groups, which was preceded by post hoc Tuckey test. MMP-12 cut off values were determined using Receiver operating characteristic curve.
Results: A significant difference in salivary MMP-12 expression was observed in OSF and OSCC (p < 0.001). The expression of salivary MMP-12 was higher in OSF and OSCC patients as compared to the healthy group (p < 0.001). The mean MMP-12 expression in OSCC appeared higher than in OSF cases (p < 0.05). MMP-12 value of [Formula: see text] 4.05 ng/ml and [Formula: see text] 4.20 ng/ml is predictive of OSF and OSCC respectively, with 100% sensitivity and specificity (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Increased expression of MMP-12 appears as the healthy patient advances to OSF and OSCC. The study results also demonstrate higher MMP-12 expression in OSCC patients as compared to OSF. Therefore, the estimation of salivary MMP-12 serves as a valuable non-invasive early diagnostic tool in diagnosing oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Keywords: ELISA; MMP-12; Matrix metalloproteinase; Oral squamous cell carcinoma; Oral submucous fibrosis; Salivary biomarker.