RNA editing-mediated regulation of calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS1) localization and its impact on synaptic transmission

J Neurochem. 2021 Jul;158(2):182-196. doi: 10.1111/jnc.15372. Epub 2021 May 28.


Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) is a SNARE accessory protein that facilitates formation of the SNARE complex to enable neurotransmitter release. Messenger RNAs encoding CAPS1 are subject to a site-specific adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing event resulting in a glutamate-to-glycine (E-to-G) substitution in the C-terminal domain of the encoded protein product. The C-terminal domain of CAPS1 is necessary for its synaptic enrichment and Cadps RNA editing has been shown previously to enhance the release of neuromodulatory transmitters. Using mutant mouse lines engineered to solely express CAPS1 protein isoforms encoded by either the non-edited or edited Cadps transcript, primary neuronal cultures from mouse hippocampus were used to explore the effect of Cadps editing on neurotransmission and CAPS1 synaptic localization at both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. While the editing of Cadps does not alter baseline evoked neurotransmission, it enhances short-term synaptic plasticity, specifically short-term depression, at inhibitory synapses. Cadps editing also alters spontaneous inhibitory neurotransmission. Neurons that solely express edited Cadps have a greater proportion of synapses that contain CAPS1 than neurons that solely express non-edited Cadps for both glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. Editing of Cadps transcripts is regulated by neuronal activity, as global network stimulation increases the extent of transcripts edited in wild-type hippocampal neurons, whereas chronic network silencing decreases the level of Cadps editing. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the importance of Cadps editing in modulating its own synaptic localization, as well as the modulation of neurotransmission at inhibitory synapses in hippocampal neurons.

Keywords: ADAR; GABA; glutamate; neurotransmitter.