Optimization of indocyanine green angiography for colon perfusion during laparoscopic colorectal surgery

Colorectal Dis. 2021 Jul;23(7):1848-1859. doi: 10.1111/codi.15684. Epub 2021 May 11.


Aim: This study aims to evaluate the extrinsic effects of conditional factors affecting quantitative parameters and to establish the optimization of indocyanine green (ICG) angiography using in vitro experiments and a prospective observational study.

Method: In vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the correlation between conditional factors such as camera distance, surrounding lighting, fluorescence emission sources and ICG doses. The fluorescence intensity was measured from the ICG-containing test tube in each condition. In the clinical study, ICG angiography was applied to patients with colorectal cancer (n = 164). The quantitative perfusion parameters were the maximal fluorescence intensity (FMAX ), slope, T1/2MAX and perfusion time ratio (TR). Camera position, distance to colon, fluorescence emission source, surrounding lighting, site of angiography and ICG specific mode were considered as conditional factors and compared with the quantitative parameters to identify the optimal condition of ICG angiography.

Results: The fluorescence intensity had an inverse correlation with distance, and the transitional zone was shown at a distance of 4-5 cm by slope differential. FMAX , T1/2MAX and slope were affected significantly by camera distance, site of angiography, fluorescence emission source and ICG mode as conditional factors. On multivariate analysis, FMAX was independently associated with spectral ICG mode with red inversion, laser mode and camera distance. Conversely, TR was not related to any conditional factors.

Conclusion: Since quantitative parameters of ICG angiography are influenced by various conditions, a standardized protocol is required. The application of ICG specific modes with a constant distance of 4-5 cm can provide optimized fluorescence images.

Keywords: colorectal surgery; fluorescein angiography; indocyanine green; laparoscopy; perfusion imaging.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anastomotic Leak
  • Angiography
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Colorectal Surgery*
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Humans
  • Indocyanine Green
  • Laparoscopy*
  • Perfusion


  • Indocyanine Green