Immunoprotective inference of experimental chronic Trichinella spiralis infection on house dust mites induced allergic airway remodeling

Acta Trop. 2021 Aug;220:105934. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105934. Epub 2021 Apr 23.


Allergic bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation of the respiratory airways mediated by T-helper 2 (Th2), Th17 and their cytokines. Although most asthmatic patients suffer from allergic airway remodeling (AAR), aggressive anti-allergic treatment failed to reverse it. The hygiene hypothesis illuminated the counter relationship between allergy and helminthic infections. The immune system is modulated by Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection to maintain homeostasis. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the impact of chronic T. spiralis infection on induced AAR in C57BL/6 mice sensitized by house dust mites (HDM) allergens. Forty mice were divided into 3 groups: I (10 healthy mice), IΙ (15 HDM sensitized mice), and ΙΙI (15 T. spiralis chronically infected mice and sensitized with HDM allergens). The assessment aimed to evaluate the effects of regulatory CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells (Tregs) and their cytokines comparative to hypersensitivity mediated cytokines. Chronic T. spiralis infection effectively prevented the host's AAR. This result was evidenced by upregulated Tregs in blood by flow cytometric analysis and increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as well as improved lung histopathological changes. Also, serum HDM specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), BAL eosinophils, BAL IL-5 levels, and IL-17 gene expression in lung tissues were significantly reduced in T. spiralis chronically infected mice. In conclusion, the immune response in chronic T. spiralis infection could provide a promising mechanistic tool for protection against AAR, which paves the way for innovative preventive measures of other immunological disorders.

Keywords: Allergic airway remodeling; Bronchoalveolar lavage; CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells; House dust mites; IgE; Trichinella spiralis.

MeSH terms

  • Airway Remodeling / immunology*
  • Allergens / immunology
  • Allergens / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Asthma / immunology
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Interleukins / immunology
  • Lung / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Pyroglyphidae / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology
  • Trichinella spiralis
  • Trichinellosis / immunology*


  • Allergens
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukins
  • Immunoglobulin E