Background: Verrucous venous malformation (VVM), previously called "verrucous hemangioma," typically involves the dermis and the subcutaneous fat. We have encountered patients with VVM confined to the hypodermis.
Materials and methods: During a nearly 20-year period, 13 patients, aged 2-17 years, presented with a subcutaneous mass in the limb without clinically obvious epidermal alterations. Consequently, operative excisions did not include the skin.
Results: Histopathologically, the specimens were composed of blood-filled channels with morphologic characteristics of capillaries and veins that infiltrated adipose tissue. Aggregates often formed nodules with variable fibrosis and a component of large and radially oriented vessels. A diagnosis of VVM was supported by endothelial immunopositivity for GLUT-1 (25%-75% immunopositive channels in 16/16 specimens); D2-40 (1%-25% channels in 14/15 specimens); and Prox-1 (1%-50% of channels in 14/16 specimens). A MAP3K3 mutation was identified by droplet digital PCR in 3 of the 6 specimens.
Conclusions: Diagnosis of VVM in this uncommon location is challenging because of absence of epidermal changes and lack of dermal involvement. Imaging is not pathognomonic, and mimickers are many. Appropriate immunohistochemical stains and molecular analysis contribute to the correct diagnosis.
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