Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Region Instability, and Facial Anomalies Syndrome (ICF) in a Boy with Variable Clinical and Immunological Presentations

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021 Apr 17;20(2):249-254.


Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by recurrent infections and low immunoglobulin levels due to variable combined immunodeficiency, and centromeric region instability, and facial dysmorphism. We describe a 12-year-old boy with recurrent respiratory tract infections, facial anomalies, scoliosis, and psychomotor retardation. He had recurrent pneumonia with low serum IgG and IgM levels during infancy and preschool age. Later at the age of 10, he developed recurrent ear infections. An IgA and IgM deficiency was found accompanied by a normal B-cell and T-cell count as well as an impaired candida-induced T-cell proliferation. Further evaluations revealed a missense mutation in the DNMT3B gene on chromosome 20. Chromosomal analysis showed a sunburst multi-radial feature on chromosome 1, which is a hallmark of ICF syndrome. The genetic mutation and chromosomal abnormality along with clinical findings are compatible with the diagnosis of ICF syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that scoliosis is observed in an ICF patient. The additional variable clinical symptoms in the case were the presence of spastic gait as well as hypogammaglobulinemia with immunoglobulin isotype switch at different ages.

Keywords: Chromosomal instability; DNA methyltransferase 3B; Immunodeficiency; Scoliosis.