Disparities in Kidney Stone Disease: A Scoping Review

J Urol. 2021 Sep;206(3):517-525. doi: 10.1097/JU.0000000000001846. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Abstract

Purpose: We reviewed the available evidence regarding health disparities in kidney stone disease to identify knowledge gaps in this area.

Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted using PubMed®, Embase® and Scopus® limited to articles published in English from 1971 to 2020. Articles were selected based on their relevance to disparities in kidney stone disease among adults in the United States.

Results: Several large epidemiological studies suggest disproportionate increases in incidence and prevalence of kidney stone disease among women as well as Black and Hispanic individuals in the United States, whereas other studies of comparable size do not report racial and ethnic demographics. Numerous articles describe disparities in imaging utilization, metabolic workup completion, analgesia, surgical intervention, stone burden at presentation, surgical complications, followup, and quality of life based on race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and place of residence. Differences in urinary parameters based on race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status may be explained by both dietary and physiological factors. All articles assessed had substantial risk of selection bias and confounding.

Conclusions: Health disparities are present in many aspects of kidney stone disease. Further research should focus not only on characterization of these disparities but also on interventions to reduce or eliminate them.

Keywords: continental population groups; ethnic groups; healthcare disparities; kidney calculi; social class.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Hispanic Americans / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Calculi / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Residence Characteristics / statistics & numerical data
  • Sex Factors
  • Social Class
  • United States / epidemiology