Integration of clinical anatomical sciences in medical education: Design, development and implementation strategies

Clin Anat. 2021 Jul;34(5):785-793. doi: 10.1002/ca.23736. Epub 2021 May 3.


For the last 20 years, undergraduate medical education has seen a major curricular reform movement toward integration of basic and clinical sciences. The rationale for integrated medical school curricula focuses on the application of knowledge in a clinical context and the early ability to practice key skills such as critical thinking and clinical problem-solving. The method and extent of discipline integration can vary widely from single sessions to entire programs. A challenge for integrated curricula is the design of appropriate assessments. The goal of this review is to provide a framework for clinical anatomy educators with definitions of integration, examples of existing integration models, strategies, and instructional methods that promote integration of basic and clinical sciences.

Keywords: anatomy education; cognitive integration; curriculum integration; teaching innovation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anatomy / education*
  • Curriculum / trends*
  • Education, Medical, Undergraduate / methods*
  • Humans
  • Problem-Based Learning