Intra-abdominal hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure together predict adverse outcome - A sub-analysis of a prospective cohort

J Crit Care. 2021 Apr 17;64:165-172. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2021.04.009. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Purpose: To assess whether the combination of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, intra-abdominal pressure ≥ 12 mmHg) and hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF, PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 300 mmHg) in patients receiving invasive ventilation is an independent risk factor for 90- and 28-day mortality as well as ICU- and ventilation-free days.

Methods: Mechanically ventilated patients who had blood gas analyses performed and intra-abdominal pressure measured, were included from a prospective cohort. Subgroups were defined by the absence (Group 1) or the presence of either IAH (Group 2) or HRF (Group 3) or both (Group 4). Mixed-effects regression analysis was performed.

Results: Ninety-day mortality increased from 16% (Group 1, n = 50) to 30% (Group 2, n = 20) and 27% (Group 3, n = 100) to 49% (Group 4, n = 142), log-rank test p < 0.001. The combination of IAH and HRF was associated with increased 90- and 28-day mortality as well as with fewer ICU- and ventilation-free days. The association with 90-day mortality was no longer present after adjustment for independent variables. However, the association with 28-day mortality, ICU- and ventilation-free days persisted after adjusting for independent variables.

Conclusions: In our sub-analysis, the combination of IAH and HRF was not independently associated with 90-day mortality but independently increased the odds of 28-day mortality, and reduced the number of ICU- and ventilation-free days.

Keywords: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Critically ill; Intra-abdominal hypertension; Intra-abdominal pressure; Mechanical ventilation; Outcome; Oxygenation; Respiratory failure; Risk factors.