White adipose tissue (WAT) is an essential regulator of energy storage and systemic metabolic homeostasis. Regulatory networks consisting of immune and structural cells are necessary to maintain WAT metabolism, which can become impaired during obesity in mammals. Using single-cell transcriptomics and flow cytometry, we unveil a large-scale comprehensive cellular census of the stromal vascular fraction of healthy lean and obese human WAT. We report new subsets and developmental trajectories of adipose-resident innate lymphoid cells, dendritic cells and monocyte-derived macrophage populations that accumulate in obese WAT. Analysis of cell-cell ligand-receptor interactions and obesity-enriched signaling pathways revealed a switch from immunoregulatory mechanisms in lean WAT to inflammatory networks in obese WAT. These results provide a detailed and unbiased cellular landscape of homeostatic and inflammatory circuits in healthy human WAT.