IMI Accommodation and Binocular Vision in Myopia Development and Progression

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2021 Apr 28;62(5):4. doi: 10.1167/iovs.62.5.4.


The role of accommodation in myopia development and progression has been debated for decades. More recently, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in accommodation and the consequent alterations in ocular parameters has expanded. This International Myopia Institute white paper reviews the variations in ocular parameters that occur with accommodation and the mechanisms involved in accommodation and myopia development and progression. Convergence is synergistically linked with accommodation and the impact of this on myopia has also been critiqued. Specific topics reviewed included accommodation and myopia, role of spatial frequency, and contrast of the task of objects in the near environment, color cues to accommodation, lag of accommodation, accommodative-convergence ratio, and near phoria status. Aspects of retinal blur from the lag of accommodation, the impact of spatial frequency at near and a short working distance may all be implicated in myopia development and progression. The response of the ciliary body and its links with changes in the choroid remain to be explored. Further research is critical to understanding the factors underlying accommodative and binocular mechanisms for myopia development and its progression and to guide recommendations for targeted interventions to slow myopia progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Accommodation, Ocular / physiology*
  • Convergence, Ocular / physiology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Myopia / physiopathology*
  • Refraction, Ocular / physiology
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology*