The mechanism by which intracerebroventricularly administered aldosterone increases arterial pressure was investigated in trained, conscious dogs with cannulas chronically implanted in a lateral cerebral ventricle. In salt-replete and salt-depleted dogs, artificial cerebrospinal fluid with or without aldosterone (0.05 microgram/kg/hr) was infused intracerebroventricularly for 12 days by an osmotic minipump. A similar dose of aldosterone was infused subcutaneously for 12 days. Aldosterone infused intracerebroventricularly increased blood pressure significantly in both salt-replete and salt-depleted dogs. In salt-replete animals the hypertension was associated with increased total peripheral resistance without concomitant changes in blood volume, cardiac output, or in any of the neurohumoral parameters measured. We conclude that this type of hypertension is resistance-mediated from its outset and appears to be relatively independent of salt and water retention. The mechanism by which intracerebroventricularly administered aldosterone increases vascular resistance remains to be determined.