Evaluation of Cortical Bone Microdamage and Primary Stability of Orthodontic Miniscrew Using a Human Bone Analogue

Materials (Basel). 2021 Apr 7;14(8):1825. doi: 10.3390/ma14081825.


Orthodontic miniscrews have gained popularity; however, they have some drawbacks, including screw loosening that results from bone resorption caused by excess microdamage created during screw insertion. Pilot hole preparation through the cortical bone is considered beneficial to avoid such microdamage, while an overly large pilot hole impairs primary stability. Hence, we used a human bone analogue to evaluate the microdamage and primary stability to estimate the optimal pilot hole size that would minimize the screw loosening risk. Ti6Al4V orthodontic miniscrews and 1.0-mm-thick synthetic cortical bone pieces were prepared. Various compressive loads were applied in indentation tests to test pieces' surfaces, and the microdamaged areas were confirmed as stress-whitening zones. Screw insertion tests were performed in which a miniscrew was inserted into the test pieces' pilot hole with a diameter of 0.7-1.2 mm in 0.1-mm intervals, and the stress-whitening area was measured. The insertion and removal torque were also measured to evaluate primary stability. The stress-whitening areas of the 1.0-1.2 mm pilot hole diameter groups were significantly smaller than those of the other groups (p < 0.05), whereas the 0.9 and 1.0 mm pilot hole diameter groups showed higher primary stability than other groups. In conclusion, the bone analogue could be utilized to evaluate microdamage in cortical bones and the primary stability of miniscrews.

Keywords: microdamage; orthodontic miniscrew; pilot hole; primary stability; synthetic cortical bone.