CYP2C19 Polymorphisms in Indonesia: Comparison among Ethnicities and the Association with Clinical Outcomes

Biology (Basel). 2021 Apr 6;10(4):300. doi: 10.3390/biology10040300.


CYP2C19 polymorphisms are important factors for proton pump inhibitor-based therapy. We examined the CYP2C19 genotypes and analyzed the distribution among ethnicities and clinical outcomes in Indonesia. We employed the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to determine the CYP2C19 genotypes and evaluated inflammation severity with the updated Sydney system. For CYP2C19*2, 46.4% were the homozygous wild-type allele, 14.5% were the homozygous mutated allele, and 39.2% were the heterozygous allele. For CYP2C19*3, 88.6% were the homozygous wild-type allele, 2.4% were the homozygous mutated allele, and 9.0% were the heterozygous allele. Overall, the prevalence of rapid, intermediate, and poor metabolizers in Indonesia was 38.5, 41.6, and 19.9%, respectively. In the poor metabolizer group, the frequency of allele *2 (78.8%) was higher than the frequency of allele *3 (21.2%). The Papuan had a significantly higher likelihood of possessing poor metabolizers than the Balinese (OR 11.0; P = 0.002). The prevalence of poor metabolizers was lower compared with the rapid and intermediate metabolizers among patients with gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Intermediate metabolizers had the highest prevalence, followed by rapid metabolizers and poor metabolizers. Dosage adjustment should therefore be considered when administering proton pump inhibitor-based therapy in Indonesia.

Keywords: CYP2C19; H. pylori; gastritis; infectious disease; polymorphism.