Adjusted Indirect and Mixed Comparisons of Conservative Treatments for Hallux Valgus: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr 6;18(7):3841. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18073841.


Background: Hallux valgus (HV) deformity is a common, potentially debilitating deformity. And evidence with high-quality for the conservative treatments of HV deformity is still required.; AIMS: To compare the effects of different conservative treatments for hallux valgus deformity by using the method of network meta-analysis.; Study Design: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OVID, and CINAHL. The included studies should have the characteristics that: (1) participants with hallux valgus deformity of any age (2) conservative treatments (3) Reported the hallux valgus (HVA), the intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the score of the Visual Analog Scale, and the score of Foot Function Index.; Results: 11 studies were included in this review. The agreement between reviewers reached a kappa value of 0.75. The results of the network meta-analysis showed that a combination of exercise and toe separator, night splints, and dry needling are most likely to be the best choice for reducing the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle, and toe separators (with or without exercise), dry needling, and manipulation (with or without ice treatment) have advantages in improving the subjective feeling of patients.; Conclusions: Multi-disciplinary conservative treatments have a great potential for hallux valgus deformity. More research with high-quality is needed to give a comprehensive and reasonable scheme of a holistic and long-term treatment protocol.

Keywords: bunion; conservative; hallux valgus deformity; network meta-analysis; non-surgical.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Conservative Treatment
  • Hallux Valgus* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Network Meta-Analysis
  • Pain Measurement
  • Radiography
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome