Global immunization campaigns have resulted in a major decline in the global incidence of polio cases, with wild-type poliovirus remaining endemic in only two countries. Live oral polio vaccine (OPV) played a role in the reduction in polio case numbers; however, the risk of OPV developing into circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus makes it unsuitable for eradication programs. Trivalent inactivated polio virus (TIPV) vaccines which contain formalin-inactivated antigens produced from virulent types 1, 2 and 3 reference polio strains grown in Vero monkey kidney cells have been advocated as a replacement for OPV; however, TIPVs have weak immunogenicity and multiple boosts are required before peak neutralizing titers are reached. This study examined whether the incorporation of the novel polysaccharide adjuvant, Advax-CpG, could boost the immunogenicity of two TIPV vaccines, (i) a commercially available polio vaccine (IPOL®, Sanofi Pasteur) and (ii) a new TIPV formulation developed by Statens Serum Institut (SSI). Mice were immunized intramuscularly based on recommended vaccine dosage schedules and serum antibody titers were followed for 12 months post-immunization. Advax-CpG significantly enhanced the long-term immunogenicity of both TIPV vaccines and had at least a 10-fold antigen dose-sparing effect. An exception was the poor ability of the SSI TIPV to induce serotype type 1 neutralizing antibodies. Immunization with monovalent IPVs suggested that the low type 1 response to TIPV may be due to antigen competition when the type 1 antigen was co-formulated with the type 2 and 3 antigens. This study provides valuable insights into the complexity of the formulation of multivalent polio vaccines and supports the further development of adjuvanted antigen-sparing TIPV vaccines in the fight to eradicate polio.
Keywords: Advax-CpG; adjuvant; polio; poliomyelitis; vaccine; virus.