There is a perplexity in the association between interleukin (IL) polymorphisms and periodontitis among patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate indexed data regarding the association between periodontitis and genetic polymorphisms in interleukins among patients with and without DM. The addressed question was "Is there an association between periodontitis and polymorphisms in interleukins among patients with and without DM?" Original studies were included. Indexed databases were searched, and the pattern of the present literature review was customized to summaries' the pertinent information. Eight studies were included and processed for data extraction. Two studies showed that polymorphisms in IL-1B genes aggravate periodontitis in patients with type-2 DM, and two studies showed that IL-1B genes either do not or are less likely to contribute towards the progression of periodontitis in patients with type-2 DM. Two studies reported that IL genes do not show cross-susceptibility with periodontitis and type-2 DM. One study reported that the primary factor that governs the occurrence and progression of periodontitis in patients with and without type-2 DM is poor routine oral hygiene maintenance. Seven studies had a high risk of bias. The role of IL gene polymorphisms in the development and progression of periodontitis in patients with and without DM remains controversial.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; genetic polymorphisms; interleukin; periodontitis.