Dyslipidemia is a significant threat to public health worldwide and the identification of its pathogenic mechanisms, as well as novel lipid-lowering agents, are warranted. Magnesium (Mg) is a key element to human health and its deficiency has been linked to the development of lipid abnormalities and related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or cardiovascular disease. In this review, we explored the associations of Mg (dietary intake, Mg concentrations in the body) and the lipid profile, as well as the impact of Mg supplementation on serum lipids. A systematic search was computed in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library and 3649 potentially relevant papers were detected and screened (n = 3364 following the removal of duplicates). After the removal of irrelevant manuscripts based on the screening of their titles and abstracts (n = 3037), we examined the full-texts of 327 original papers. Finally, after we applied the exclusion and inclusion criteria, a number of 124 original articles were included in this review. Overall, the data analyzed in this review point out an association of Mg concentrations in the body with serum lipids in dyslipidemia and related disorders. However, further research is warranted to clarify whether a higher intake of Mg from the diet or via supplements can influence the lipid profile and exert lipid-lowering actions.
Keywords: cholesterol; diabetes; dyslipidemia; hyperlipidemia; hypomagnesemia; lipids; magnesemia; magnesium; metabolic syndrome; triglycerides.