A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pharmacogenetic Studies in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Apr 25;22(9):4480. doi: 10.3390/ijms22094480.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global public health problem due to its high prevalence and morbidity. Although the treatment of nephrology patients has changed considerably, ineffectiveness and side effects of medications represent a major issue. In an effort to elucidate the contribution of genetic variants located in several genes in the response to treatment of patients with CKD, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available pharmacogenetics studies. The association between genotype distribution and response to medication was examined using the dominant, recessive, and additive inheritance models. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity was also performed. In total, 29 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which examined the association of 11 genes (16 polymorphisms) with the response to treatment regarding CKD. Among the 29 studies, 18 studies included patients with renal transplantation, 8 involved patients with nephrotic syndrome, and 3 studies included patients with lupus nephritis. The present meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the contribution of variants harbored in the ABCB1, IL-10, ITPA, MIF, and TNF genes that creates some genetic predisposition that reduces effectiveness or is associated with adverse events of medications used in CKD.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; genetic association; meta-analysis; pharmacogenetics; systematic review.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Azathioprine / pharmacokinetics
  • Cyclosporine / pharmacokinetics
  • Humans
  • Pharmacogenomic Testing*
  • Pharmacogenomic Variants*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Prednisolone / pharmacokinetics
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / genetics*
  • Tacrolimus / pharmacokinetics
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Cyclosporine
  • Prednisolone
  • Azathioprine
  • Tacrolimus