Molecular Mechanisms of Atopic Dermatitis Pathogenesis

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Apr 16;22(8):4130. doi: 10.3390/ijms22084130.


Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, non-infectious inflammatory dermatosis. Acharacteristic feature is persistent itching of the skin. The chronic, relapsing course of the disease, economic burden, and the whole family's involvement in the treatment process immensely reduce the quality of life of patients and their families. The disease emerges as a social problem by increasing indirect costs, such as visiting a doctor, absenteeism from work and school, and avoiding social interactions. Thepathophysiology of atopic dermatitis is complex and multifactorial. It includes genetic disorders, a defect in the epidermal barrier, an altered immune response, anddisruption of the skin's microbial balance. The numerous complex changes at thegenetic level and innate and adaptive immunity provide the basis for characterizing the various phenotypes and endotypes of atopic dermatitis. Emerging therapies rely on the action of specific molecules involved in the disease's pathogenesis. It may be the starting point for the individualization of atopic dermatitis treatment. This paper will try to present some molecular mechanisms of atopic dermatitis and their clinical implications.

Keywords: allergic diseases; atopic dermatitis; epidermal barriers defects; genetic disorders; immunological disturbances; microbiome; pathogenesis; targeted therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / genetics*
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / immunology
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / microbiology
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Microbiota