Increasing Egg Consumption at Breakfast Is Associated with Increased Usual Nutrient Intakes: A Modeling Analysis Using NHANES and the USDA Child and Adult Care Food Program School Breakfast Guidelines

Nutrients. 2021 Apr 20;13(4):1379. doi: 10.3390/nu13041379.

Abstract

The objective of the current modeling analysis was three-fold: (1) to examine usual nutrient intakes in children when eggs are added into dietary patterns that typically do not contain eggs; (2) to examine usual nutrient intakes with the addition of eggs in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) school breakfast; and (3) to examine nutrient adequacy when eggs are included in routine breakfast patterns and with the addition of eggs to the CACFP school breakfast program. Dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2016 (children aged 1-18 years-old; n = 9254; CACFP n = 159) were used in the analysis. The usual intakes of pantothenic acid, riboflavin, selenium, and vitamin D increased ≥10 percent (relative to the baseline values) with the addition of one egg at breakfast. The usual intakes of protein and vitamin A at breakfast were also increased by more than 10 percent compared to the baseline values with the addition of two eggs. Similar outcomes were observed with the addition of eggs to the CACFP school breakfast. The percent of children above the adequate intake for total choline increased to 43.6 and 57.8% with one and two eggs, respectively, compared to 22.6% at the baseline. The addition of eggs at breakfast can contribute to nutrient intakes and overall dietary adequacy and play a role in public health initiatives aimed at increasing the intake of under-consumed nutrients and nutrients of concern.

Keywords: CACFP; US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); breakfast; children; eggs; nutrient adequacy; usual intakes.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Breakfast*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dietary Fats
  • Eating*
  • Eggs*
  • Guidelines as Topic*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Nutrition Surveys*
  • Nutritional Status
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances
  • Schools*
  • Sodium
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Dietary Fats
  • Sodium