Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), such as adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), have the most impressive ability to reduce inflammation through paracrine growth factors and cytokines that participate in inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α bioactivity is a prerequisite in several inflammatory and autoimmune disease models. This study investigated the effects of TNF-α stimulate on ADSCs in the tumor microenvironment. The RNAseq analysis and cytokines assay demonstrated that TNF-α stimulated ADSCs proliferation and pro-inflammatory genes that correlated to leukocytes differentiation were upregulated. We found that upregulation of TLR2 or PTGS2 toward to IRF7 gene-associated with immunomodulatory and antitumor pathway under TNF-α treatment. In TNF-α-treated ADSCs cultured with the bladder cancer (BC) cell medium, the results showed that apoptosis ratio and OCT-4 and TLR2 genes which maintained the self-renewal ability of stem cells were decreased. Furthermore, the cell survival regulation genes including TRAF1, NF-kB, and IRF7 were upregulated in TNF-α-treated ADSCs. Additionally, these genes have not been upregulated in BC cell medium. A parallel study showed that tumor progressing genes were downregulated in TNF-α-treated ADSCs. Hence, the study suggests that TNF-α enhances the immunomodulatory potential of ADSCs during tumorigenesis and provides insight into highly efficacious MSC-based therapeutic options for BC.
Keywords: adipose-derived stem cells; bladder cancer; immunomodulatory; inflammatory microenvironment; tumor necrosis factor-α; tumorigenicity.