Psyllium husk powder was investigated for its ability to improve the quality and shelf life of gluten-free bread. Gluten-free bread formulations containing 2.86%, 7.14%, and 17.14% psyllium by flour weight basis were compared to the control gluten-free bread and wheat bread in terms of performance. The effect of time on crumb moisture and firmness, microbial safety, and sensory acceptability using a 10-cm scale was assessed at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h postproduction. Crumb firming was observed during the storage time, especially for the control gluten-free bread, which had a crumb firmness 8-fold higher than that of the wheat bread. Psyllium addition decreased the crumb firmness values by 65-75% compared to those of the control gluten-free bread during 72 h of storage. The longest delay in bread staling was observed with a 17.14% psyllium addition. The psyllium-enriched gluten-free bread was well accepted during 72 h of storage, and the acceptability scores for aroma, texture, and flavor ranged from 6.8 to 8.3, which resembled those of wheat bread. The results showed that the addition of 17.14% psyllium to the formulation improved the structure, appearance, texture, and acceptability of gluten-free bread and delayed bread staling, resembling physical and sensory properties of wheat bread samples during 72 h of storage. Therefore, according to the obtained results, this approach seems to be promising to overcome some of the limitations of gluten-free breadmaking.
Keywords: acceptability; bread quality; gluten-free; multiple factor analysis; staling process.