Some mosquito species have significant public health importance given their ability to transmit major diseases to humans and animals, making them the deadliest animals in the world. Among these, the Aedes (Ae.) genus is a vector of several viruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses that can cause serious pathologies in humans. Since 2004, Ae. albopictus has been encountered in the South of France, and autochthonous cases of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika diseases have recently been reported, further highlighting the need for a comprehensive survey of the mosquitoes and their associated viruses in this area. Using high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques, we report an analysis of the DNA and RNA viral communities of three mosquito species Ae. albopictus, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, and Culiseta (Cs.) longiareolata vectors of human infectious diseases in a small sub-urban city in the South of France. Results revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses known to infect bacteria, plants, insects, and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including novel members of the Rhabdoviridae, Totiviridae, Iflaviviridae, Circoviridae, and Sobemoviridae families. No sequence related to major zoonotic viruses transmitted by mosquitoes was detected. The use of HTS on arthropod vector populations is a promising strategy for monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties. This study is a contribution to the knowledge of the mosquito microbiome.
Keywords: France; diversity; metagenomics; mosquitoes; virome.