Med Clin North Am. 2021 May;105(3):493-510. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.01.004. Epub 2021 Apr 2.


Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The global prevalence of glaucoma in people aged 40 to 80 years is estimated to be 3.5%. With the growing number and proportion of older persons in the population, it is projected that 111.8 million people will have glaucoma in 2040. Currently available treatments cannot reverse glaucomatous damage to the visual system; however, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent progression of the disease. In most cases, glaucoma is a chronic condition that requires lifelong management. This article reviews the pathophysiology, classification, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of glaucoma.

Keywords: Angle-closure glaucoma; Glaucoma; Glaucoma treatment; Open-angle glaucoma; Secondary glaucoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Glaucoma* / classification
  • Glaucoma* / diagnosis
  • Glaucoma* / physiopathology
  • Glaucoma* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / drug effects
  • Intraocular Pressure / physiology