Background: A large proportion of adult survivors of cardiac arrest have a poor neurological outcome. Guidelines recommend multimodal neuro-prognostication no earlier than 72-96 h after cardiac arrest. There is great interest in earlier prognostic markers, including very early markers at admission. The novel blood biomarkers proenkephalin A 119-159 (penKid), bioactive adrenomedullin (bio-ADM) and circulating dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (cDPP3) have not been previously investigated for the early prognosis of cardiac arrest survivors.
Methods: This multicentre observational study included adult survivors of cardiac arrest admitted to intensive care at four Swedish intensive care units (ICUs) during 2016. Blood samples were collected at ICU admission and batch analysed. The association between admission plasma penKid, bio-ADM and cDPP3 and poor long-term neurological outcome, according to the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale, was assessed by binary logistic regression. Their prognostic performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
Results: A total of 190 patients were included, of which 136 patients had suffered out-of-hospital and 54 patients in-hospital cardiac arrest. Poor long-term neurological outcome was associated with elevated admission plasma concentrations of penKid and cDPP3, but not with bio-ADM. The association for penKid, but not for cDPP3, remained after adjusting for clinical cardiac arrest variables with prognostic value (time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), initial rhythm, admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) motor score and absence of pupillary reflexes). The prognostic performance of above mentioned clinical cardiac arrest variables alone was very good with an AUC of 0.90 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.86-0.95), but improved further with the addition of penKid resulting in an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97, p < 0.026). Plasma penKid and cDPP3 alone provided moderate long-term prognostic information with AUCs of 0.70 and 0.71, respectively.
Conclusion: After cardiac arrest, admission plasma levels of penKid and cDPP3, but not bio-ADM, predicted long-term neurological outcome. When added to clinical cardiac arrest variables, penKid further improved prognostic performance.
Keywords: Biomarker; Cardiac arrest; Cerebral performance category; Dipeptidyl peptidase 3; Proenkephalin.
Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.