Pharmacist-Led Mobile Health Intervention and Transplant Medication Safety: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2021 May 8;16(5):776-784. doi: 10.2215/CJN.15911020. Epub 2021 Apr 30.


Background and objectives: Medication safety events are predominant contributors to suboptimal graft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of improving medication safety through a pharmacist-led, mobile health-based intervention.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a 12-month, single-center, prospective, parallel, two-arm, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Adult kidney recipients 6-36 months post-transplant were eligible. Participants randomized to intervention received supplemental clinical pharmacist-led medication therapy monitoring and management via a mobile health-based application, integrated with risk-guided televisits and home-based BP and glucose monitoring. The application provided an accurate medication regimen, timely reminders, and side effect surveys. Both the control and intervention arms received usual care, including serial laboratory monitoring and regular clinic visits. The coprimary outcomes were to assess the incidence and severity of medication errors and adverse events.

Results: In total, 136 kidney transplant recipients were included, 68 in each arm. The mean age was 51 years, 57% were male, and 64% were Black individuals. Participants receiving the intervention experienced a significant reduction in medication errors (61% reduction in the risk rate; incident risk ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.55; P<0.001) and a significantly lower incidence risk of Grade 3 or higher adverse events (incident risk ratio, 0.55, 95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.99; P=0.05). For the secondary outcome of hospitalizations, the intervention arm demonstrated significantly lower rates of hospitalizations (incident risk ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.77; P=0.005).

Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant reduction in medication errors, adverse events, and hospitalizations using a pharmacist-led, mobile health-based intervention.

Keywords: drug interactions; hospitalization; kidney transplantation; pharmacists.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Drug Monitoring*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mobile Applications*
  • Pharmacology, Clinical*
  • Professional Role*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Telemedicine*