Kidney stones are common in patients with short-bowel syndrome receiving long-term parenteral nutrition: A predictive model for urolithiasis

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2022 Mar;46(3):671-677. doi: 10.1002/jpen.2133. Epub 2021 Jun 11.


Background: In short-bowel syndrome (SBS) treated with parenteral nutrition (PN), multiple complications can occur. The etiology of kidney stones may be linked to the underlying disease thrombosis, surgical complications, complications of therapy for cancer, Crohn's disease, metabolic abnormalities resulting from morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal tract, and to treatment used. We analyzed all these parameters in a large cohort of patients receiving home PN (HPN), to define the incidence of stones and groups of patients particularly at risk of stone formation. One of the objectiveswas to develop a predictive model of urolithiasis.

Methods: This observational retrospective study included 459 patients with SBS recieving HPN in a single center. Patient records were evaluated for demographics, SBS etiology, and underlying disease, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal failure classification, nutrition regimen, and presence of urolithiasis.

Results: Kidney stones were diagnosed in 24% of patients. Nodifferences in incidence were noted between the various etiologic groups. The incidence in patients with a colon in continuity and those with an end stoma was similar. The length of residual small bowel did not play a role in stone formation. There were no differences between patients according to the severity of intestinal failure. In patients treated with PN and limited oral feeding, the risk of urolithiasis was twice as high as in patients receiving PN only.

Conclusions: Patients developed urolithiasis with no relation to the SBS etiology. The risk of kidney stone formation was higher in patients recieving PN with oral feeding.

Keywords: home parenteral nutrition; hyperoxaluria; kidney stones; nephrolithiasis; short-bowel syndrome; urinary stones; urolithiasis.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi* / complications
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Home* / adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Short Bowel Syndrome* / complications
  • Short Bowel Syndrome* / therapy
  • Urolithiasis* / epidemiology
  • Urolithiasis* / etiology
  • Urolithiasis* / therapy